Prince Philip’s funeral was sprinkled with a series of small, poignant touches.
From a pot of sugar lumps representing his fondness of horses, to his personal standard illustrating different elements of his life, they aimed to make the day as personal as possible.
Here we examine the significance of some of the finer details from Saturday’s occasion…
Prince Charles arrived in a Rolls-Royce Phantom VI.
The 6,230cc all-alloy engine limousine was first manufactured in 1969.
It has leather upholstery and a cocktail cabinet has often been incorporated into the rear compartment’s cabinetwork.
Prince William arrived in a Rolls-Royce Phantom V. This model was first produced in 1959 and another famous owner was John Lennon.
The Queen arrived in a State Bentley, which does not have number-plates as part of the ‘Royal prerogative’ – powers and rights the sovereign alone possesses.
Her Majesty is the only person in the UK not required to have a plate.
Bentley made the car for the Queen to mark her Golden Jubilee – celebrating 50 years on the throne – in 2002. There are actually two of the cars, both kept in the Royal Mews near Buckingham Palace.
The cars are used mostly on official engagements, and are always escorted by marked and unmarked Royal Protection Squad vehicles, local police vehicles and motorcycle outriders.
As well as words from the Book of Common Prayer, the service also included nods to the Roman Catholic Church and to the Orthodox tradition of the Duke’s childhood.
Four voices intoned words from the Kontakion – the Orthodox churches’ prayers for the dead.
They were a link not only to the Orthodox faith into which the Prince was baptised, but also to royal relatives murdered during the Russian revolution, to his mother and to the funeral of Princess Diana in 1997.
The nine lines of the Kontakion were sung as an anthem to the Kiev Melody, arranged by Sir Walter Parratt.
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They would have been prayers well known to Prince Philip ’s mother, Princess Alice, who later became a Greek Orthodox nun; and to his great-aunt, Grand Duchess Elizabeth, murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1917 and later canonised by the Russian Orthodox Church.
The last lines – “weeping o’er the grave, we make our song” – formed part of a piece sung as Di’s coffin left Westminster Abbey.
The jewellery and his medals
The Duchess of Cambridge chose a pearl necklace that paid tribute to both the Queen and the late Princess Diana.
Featuring four strands of pearls and a diamond clasp, the Japanese Pearl Choker was also worn by the Duchess for the Queen and Prince Philip’s 70th wedding anniversary dinner in 2017.
It was previously loaned to Diana by the Queen in 1982 for a banquet in honour of Queen Beatrix and Prince Claus of the Netherlands at Hampton Court Palace during their state visit.
The Queen wore the piece to a Royal engagement in Bangladesh in 1983 where she paired it with the Girls of Great Britain Tiara, and to a dinner in London in 1995 to mark the 70th birthday of former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
All of the Queen’s children and the Duke of Cambridge wore the Garter Star, representing the Order of the Garter, which is the highest order of chivalry in the British honours system and appointments are made at the sovereign’s sole discretion.
The carriage and his gloves
Made of aluminium and steel, the carriage was built to the duke’s specifications eight years ago, drawing on his knowledge of the rules set by the Federation Equestre Internationale (IEF).
The carriage can seat four people at maximum capacity and can harness up to eight horses.
It has two padded black leather seats and a clock mounted on brass at the front, which features an inscription commemorating the gift of the timepiece.
The clock was presented to Philip by the Queen’s Royal Irish Hussars on October 25, 1978, to mark his 25 years as their Colonel-in-Chief.
Prince Philip had been designing driving carriages since the 1970s – after taking up the sport aged 50.
The Duke was forced to give up polo in 1971 due what he called his ‘dodgy’ arthritic wrist, and decided to find a new sport to concentrate on.
“I suppose I could have left it at that, but I have never felt comfortable as a spectator,” he admitted.
Tennis, golf and squash were no good for his wrist and sailing would have taken him away from home at weekends.
“It then suddenly occurred to me that this carriage-driving might be just the sport,” Philip said.
Prince Philip loved nothing more than to go haring through the countryside at high speed, whip in hand, in a horse-drawn wheeled carriage.
“I am getting old, my reactions are getting slower, and my memory is unreliable, but I have never lost the sheer pleasure of driving a team through the British countryside,” he explained in the book he wrote about the sport.
Even when he was an octogenarian he continued to compete in demanding carriage-driving competitions.
The duke, as president of the IEF, had initiated drafting the first international rules for carriage-driving in 1968, which sparked an interest in the sport.
By far his most famous convert was Penelope ‘Penny’ Knatchbull, previously known as Lady Romsey now the Countess of Mountbatten of Burma, whom he coached.
He and Penny were often pictured together at the Royal Windsor Horse Show, sometimes riding mini motorcycles around the carriage driving course.
The 67-year-old countess – who was one of the duke’s closest friends – has been given the honour of being one of the 30 guests at his funeral on Saturday.
Prince Philip also taught his daughter-in-law, the Countess of Wessex, while granddaughter Lady Louise Windsor, 17, has also taken up the sport.
Land Rover drivers
The servicemen in charge of the specially modified Land Rover transporting the body of the Duke of Edinburgh spent the past week ensuring they could drive “at the correct speed”.
Corporal Louis Murray was at the wheel, with Corporal Craig French, as Land Rover commander for the Royal hearse, alongside him.
The two 29-year-old staff instructors from the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers were picked “on a coin toss” from a group of four who had been training for the purpose – and the duo were described by officials as a “trusted pair
Cpl French stated it was his job to “ensure that the driver puts the vehicle in the right place at
the right time and whether to speed up or slow down”.
Beforehand he said: “We have done a lot of practice and you get to feel what the correct speed is. It’s now like second nature.”
The son of a Falklands war hero accompanied the Duke of Edinburgh on his final journey.
Major General Rupert Jones, Colonel Commandant of The Rifles, was among eight pallbearers from the army, the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy, with whom the Duke served with distinction during the Second World War.
Jones, 51, is the youngest son of Lieutenant Colonel Herbert ‘H’ Jones, the paratrooper who was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross by the Queen for his “devastating display of courage” at the Battle of Goose Green in 1982.
Rupert, who joined the army in 1987, became the youngest officer to be appointed a major general in 2016, and Prince Philip was colonel-in-
chief of his regiment.
Lieutenant General Roland Walker, of the Grenadier Guards, and Major General Matthew Holmes, of the Royal Marines, were also among the pallbearers.
Royal burial vault
Measuring 70ft long and 28ft wide, the Royal Vault is 16 metres below ground and is accessed via an electric lift and a series of pulleys.
The burial chamber has space for 32 royals along its two sides and 12 in the centre.
Located beneath St George’s Chapel in the Windsor Castle grounds, it was built in 1810 on the orders of King George III, the first monarch it would hold, upon his death 10 years later.
As well as numerous monarchs, their siblings and their spouses, a number of infant children were laid to rest in the vault or moved from earlier resting places.
Meanwhile Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Princess Margaret and Prince Philip’s own mother, HRH Princess Andrew of Greece, were all once placed in the vault, before being moved elsewhere.
Prince Philip will eventually be moved to share a final resting place with his beloved wife.